- Jacob Libermann
Son of a Jewish rabbi. Convert to Catholicism, baptized at Paris, France on 24 December 1826 Studied at Saint Sulpice seminary beginning in 1827. An epileptic, his attacks interfered with his studies, extending his time in seminary. Ordained on 18 September 1841 in the archdiocese of Paris. His association with creole seminarians led to a call to work with sub-Saharan Africans. To pursue this he founded the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary near Amiens, France on 27 September 1841. They had immediate and continued success, and in 1848 they were merged with the similar Congregation of the Holy Ghost with Father Libermann as superior general.
- “Venerable François-Marie-Paul Libermann“. CatholicSaints.Info. 18 February 2013. Web. 22 May 2015. <>