- Renatus Goupil
Entered the Jesuit noviate in Paris, France, but his deafness prevented his joining the order. He studied medicine, and in 1639 offered to work as a medic for the Jesuit missionaries in America. Missionary to the Hurons, working as a donné, a layman who worked without pay. Worked in a hospital in Quebec, Canada in 1640. Assistant to Saint Isaac Jogues on his missionary travels. Captured and tortured by Iroquois, enemies of the Huron, for making the sign of the cross over a child‘s head, which was mistaken for some type of curse. While they were in captivity, Father Isaac received Rene into the Jesuits as a religious brother. First martyr in North America. His death by tomahawk in the head led to his patronage of people who work with or receive anasthesia.
- “Saint Rene Goupil“. CatholicSaints.Info. 2 October 2016. Web. 24 January 2017. <>