- Giovanni de Gaeta
Benedictine monk at Monte Cassino. Counsellor to Pope Pascal II. Cardinal. Chancellor of the Vatican. Chosen 161st Pope. His election was contested by Cenzio Frangipani who imprisoned him; a Roman mob rescued him and placed him on the throne. He struggled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry V and his appointed anti-pope, Maurice Bourdin, for control of the corporate church, and fled to France to escape their forces.
- “Pope Saint Gelasius II“. CatholicSaints.Info. 18 June 2015. Web. 18 January 2017. <>