Reigned from 28 December 1559 to 9 December 1565. Born on 31 March 1499 in Milan, Italy as Giovanni Angelo Medici; died on 9 December 1565 in Rome, Italy. Governor of several cities in the Papal States; commander of the papal troops; cardinal. During his pontificate the Council of Trent was terminated in 1563, and the Tridentine profession of faith for ecclesiastics was extended. The Index of Prohibited Books was revised, and he subsidized several seminaries and colleges. He protected the Jesuits, and sent the Golden Rose to Mary Queen of Scots. Pius had to cope with Elizabeth in England; John Knox and Calvinism in Scotland; Philip II and his misuse of the Inquisition in Spain; and the conspiracy of Accolti in the Papal States. A patron of art, he enlarged the Vatican Library and beautified Rome.