Born Giovanni Gaetani Orsini. Reigned from 25 November 1277 to 22 August 1280. Born c.1216 at Rome, Italy; died on 22 August 1280 at Soriano, Italy. As cardinal–deacon he played an important part in papal affairs after 1244. While pope he attempted to free Rome from foreign influence, and to check the Angevins in central Italy. At the request of the Tatar khan he sent Franciscan missionaries to Persia and China.