- Jacques Fournier
Cistercian monk. Bishop of Pamiers, France. Cardinal. Third of the Avignon popes. Worked to free the papacy from French influence and to return to Rome, Italy. Came to terms with emperor Louis, and with the Franciscans, who were alienated from the Vatican. He curbed nepotism and monastic excess, condemned “pluralities”, evangelized outlying districts, and made appointments strictly on merit.
- Saverdun, France as Jacques Fournier
- “Pope Benedict XII“. CatholicSaints.Info. 18 February 2013. Web. 25 March 2017. <>