Doctor of the Church, Archbishop of Constantinople, born Antioch, c.347; died Comana, Pontus, 407. He studied under the pagan Libianus, most famous orator of his day; devoted himself to an ascetic life; was baptized c.369; and ordained reader. For two years he lived in a cave near Antioch, but his health being impaired by austerity, he returned to the city. He was ordained priest in 386, and in the twelve years that followed was engaged chiefly in preaching and writing. His oratorical powers swayed the whole Eastern Empire, meriting the name Chrysostom, “Golden Mouthed.” In 398 he was elevated to the See of Constantinople, where he incurred popular resentment by his sweeping reforms, and was deposed and exiled, 403, by Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria. Recalled by the empress, he was exiled again in 404. Patron of orators. Emblems: bees, dove, pan. Relics in choir chapel of Saint Peter’s, Rome. Feast, Roman Calendar, 27 January.