Confessor, founder of the Dominican Order, born Calaroga, Old Castile, 1170; died Bologna, Italy, 1221. After a brilliant career at the University of Palencia, where he studied philosophy and theology, he was ordained priest, and appointed canon in the cathedral of Osma. He was instrumental in effecting ecclesiastical reforms, and in 1203 accompanied his bishop to southern France where he devoted himself to combating the Albigensian heresy. At Toulouse, according to tradition, the devotion of the Rosary was revealed to him. His preaching and reputation for sanctity drew many to him. He founded the first house of his order at Toulouse, 1215, the purpose of the community being to propagate the true doctrine and to combat heresy. He traveled extensively, personally supervising the establishment of houses in Spain, Italy, and France. He is credited with numerous extraordinary miracles. Patron of Santo Domingo. Relics at Bologna. Canonized, 1234. Feast, Roman Calendar, 8 August.