(c.735–804), scholar, educator, and theologian, born near York, England; died Tours, France. He succeeded Aelbert, in 767, as head of the cathedral school of York and established its library. In 782 he was called by Charlemagne to organize education in his palace-school at Aix-la-Chapelle. Retiring in 796 to the Abbey of Saint Martin of Tours, he founded a school there whose pupils became distinguished teachers. Among his works are treatises on grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, and astronomy; dogmatic writings; and poems. He revised the text of the Vulgate, established the Roman Rite, and compiled a Missal which was generally adopted.