Reigned from 4 August 1903 to 20 August 1914. Born on 2 June 1835 at Riese, Italy as Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; died in Rome, Italy. Before his election he accomplished many reforms in favor of the poor, and promoted the Gregorian Chant. He was made Patriarch of Venice and cardinal in 1893. During his pontificate he published encyclicals against modernism, socialism, and the oppression of the Indians in Peru by the rubber merchants. He recommended daily Communion and the reception of Communion by all children of the age of discretion. A congregation of cardinals was appointed in 1904 to recodify the Canon Law; the reorganized the Curia and published new rules for diocesan relations. His pontificate was troubled by struggles with the European powers, especially France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Beatified on 3 June 1951, and canonized on 29 May 1954.
- “New Catholic Dictionary – Pope Saint Pius X”. . CatholicSaints.Info. 12 August 2013. Web. 31 August 2016. <>