Reigned from 352 to 366. A deacon, born in Rome; died there. At the time of his election, the Christian world was perturbed by the exiling of Saint Athanasius and the activities of the Arians. Emperor Constantius wished to force a modified Arianism on the whole Church and endeavored to have the bishops of Gaul condemn Athanasius. The pope upheld the Nicene Creed and the exiled saint, who visited him in 353. Liberius was then dragged to Milan and banished to Berrea in Thrace. The anti-pope Felix II was elected but met with little support and Liberius returned after two years. Both early and recent historians hold conflicting views on the allegation that he condemned Athanasius, and signed an Arian formula; certain documents discrediting him are forgeries. In any case it is certain that he signed no document freely and so the papal infallibility is not involved.