Born c.1145 in Anagni, Italy as Ugolino; ascended to the papacy on 19 March 1227; died on 22 August 1241 in Rome, Italy. Count of Segni. As cardinal–deacon, and later cardinal–bishop of Ostia and Velletri, he was employed on many diplomatic missions throughout Europe. He was legate to Germany, where he effected a truce between two claimants, and mediator between Pisa and Genoa, Milan and Cremona, and Bologna and Pistoia. Commissioned to preach a crusade in 1221, he received Emperor Frederick II’s vow to go to the Holy Land. When consecrated pope, he ordered the emperor to fulfill his vow, and excommunicated him when he refused. The Imperial party stirred up a rebellion in Rome and drove the pope to Viterbo. Against Gregory’s wish Frederick sailed for the Holy Land, and defeated the papal army in Sicily on his return. Pope and emperor were reconciled in 1230, but only temporarily, as their interests in Lombardy conflicted. Gregory allied himself with the Lombards, Tuscans, and Umbrians in vain. Efforts to stir up Germany against Frederick failed. The pope summoned a general council to meet at Rome, which was prevented by Frederick who encamped about the city, and by the death of Gregory. As pontiff he had encouraged the mendicant orders, suppressed heretics, restored Aristotle as the basis of Scholasticism, and entrusted Raymond of Penyafort with the compilation of the papal decretals.
- “Pope Gregory IX”. . CatholicSaints.Info. 25 August 2013. Web. 26 February 2017. <>