Reigned from 1061 to 1073. Born at Baggio, near Milan as Anselmo Baggio; died Rome. Also known as Anselm of Lucca. While Bishop of Lucca and as pope he opposed simony and the lax observation of clerical celibacy. He was the first pope to be elected by the college of cardinals, according to the decree of Pope Nicholas II, and with the help of his chancellor Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory VII, he succeeded in putting aside the anti-pope Cadalous and was formally recognized as pontiff in 1064.