- Anti-Pope Clement III
Imperial chancellor for Italy from 1057 to 1063; he helped secure the election of the anti-pope Pietro Cadalous, and accepted the Archbishopric of Ravenna, Italy to which he had been nominated by Emperor Henry IV. Disliking the reforming policy of Pope Gregory VII, he joined the opposition party and was suspended in 1075 when he violated his oath to attend the Lenten Synod. The following year he was excommunicated because he sided with the German bishops and declared Gregory deposed. Henry IV secured Guibert’s nomination in 1080, and installed him in Saint Peter’s in 1084. He was soon forced to leave Rome but returned at intervals and exiled the legitimate pontiffs Victor III and Urban II. His attempt to expel Pope Paschal II failed, and Guibert died on the way to Ravenna.
- “Guibert of Ravenna”. . CatholicSaints.Info. 17 March 2010. Web. 26 September 2016. <http://catholicsaints.info/guibert-of-ravenna/>