German king and Roman emperor. Son of Conrad II. He obtained the imperial crown in 1039. Early in his reign he checked Bohemia and made Hungary his vassal. A man of profound piety, he looked on himself as a priest–king, like David. He aimed at Church reform, presided over synods, passed sentence in ecclesiastical affairs, and held inflexibly to the right of investiture. He put an end to the papal troubles caused by the resignation of Pope Benedict IX, but claimed control of nominations to the papacy. Towards the end of his reign Hungary revolted, and Saxony, Lorraine, and Tuscany were disputing his authority when he died.