Erected by Pope Pius IX to commemorate the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception (1854), is surmounted by a bronze statue of Our Lady and stands in the Piazza di Spagna, the center of the English quarter in Rome, Italy, opposite the palace of the Spanish ambassador.
- “column of Immaculate Conception”. . CatholicSaints.Info. 23 March 2010. Web. 27 October 2016. <http://catholicsaints.info/column-of-immaculate-conception/>