Ordained on 20 December 1961 in the Archdiocese of Los Angeles, California. Auxiliary Bishop of Los Angeles and Titular Bishop of Capreae on 25 March 1983. Archbishop of Portland, Oregon on 1 July 1986. Coadjutor Archbishop of San Francisco, California on 17 August 1995. Archbishop of San Francisco on 27 December 1995. Apostolic Administrator of Santa Rosa, California from 22 July 1999 to 11 April 2000. Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, President of the International Theological Commission, and President of the Pontifical Biblical Commission on 13 May 2005. Cardinal–Deacon of San Maria in Domnica on 24 March 2006. President of the Pontifical Commission “Ecclesia Dei” on 8 July 2009.