Cardinal, Archbishop of Dublin. After a course at the College of Propaganda in Rome, Italy, he was ordained in 1829 and placed in charge of the printing-press of the Sacred Congregation. From 1832 to 1850 he was rector of the Irish College and during the Roman Revolution saved the College of Propaganda from dissolution by placing it under the protection of the United States, on account of the American students. Archbishop of Armagh, Ireland on 8 January 1850. Archbishop of Dublin, Ireland, on 3 May 1852, and on 22 June 1866 was made the first Irish cardinal, Cardinal–Priest of San Pietro in Montorio. As Apostolic delegate, he convened at Thurles in 1850 the first Irish national synod held since the Reformation, and presided at the second national synod, at Maynooth in 1875. An energetic opponent of proselytism, he brought about great changes in the government system of national primary education, and promoted institutions of charity and instruction. He erected the diocesan seminary of Holy Cross, Dublin, but was unable to carry out his scheme for the foundation of a Catholic University. He supported Ireland‘s political interests, heedless of his own popularity, and opposed the Young Irelanders and the Fenians. In 1867 he obtained a reprieve for the Fenian leader, General Thomas F Burke. He took a prominent part in the First Vatican Council, and helped to formulate the wording of the definition by the council of papal infallibility as an article of faith.