Cardinal and statesman. Ordained in 1866. Titular Archbishop of Heraclea in Europa on 1 December 1882. Apostolic Nuncio to Spain on 19 December 1882, acting as auditor of the nunciature at Madrid. Cardinal-Priest of San Cecilia and secretary of the Propaganda for Eastern affairs on 14 March 1887. Secretary of the Secretariat of State on 2 June 1887. Archpriest of Saint Peter’s Basilica on 21 March 1894. Grand Prior of the Order of Malta. President of the Pontifical Biblical Commission from 1902 to 1908. Participated in the 1903 conclave that elected Pope Saint Pius X. Secretary of the Congregation of the Holy Office on 30 December 1908. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church in 1910, and Archivist of the Vatican Secret Archives in 1912. He wrote a biography of Saint Melania the Younger.