Ordained on 28 May 1930. Bishop of Suzhou, China on 9 June 1949. Bishop of Shanghai, China on 15 July 1950. Arrested on 8 September 1955 with more than 200 members of the clergy and laity, he was sentenced to life in prison and spent almost 33 years behind bars for “counter-revolutionary activities”, which consisted of being faithful to Christianity instead of following the Communist party line. Created Cardinal In Pectore on 30 June 1979 by Pope John Paul II. In 1988 he was allowed to travel to the United States for medical treatment; while he was out of China, the government there officially exiled him. He is considered a model for oppressed Chinese Christians and anyone suffering under religious oppression.