Joined the Capuchin friars on 25 April 1839. Ordained on 24 January 1846. Missionary to India where he helped found the seminary of Bombay and the Catholic Examiner. Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of Bombay and Titular Bishop of Gratianopolis on 8 March 1854. Vicar Apostolic of Thibet, China from 19 December 1856 until his resignation in 1860. Bishop of Savannah, Georgia on 11 March 1870 where he served for 4 years. Coadjutor Bishop of Aquino, Sora, e Pontecorvo, Italy on 20 June 1874; he succeeded to the see on 26 March 1879. Member of the Roman Curia and Titular Archbishop of Tamiathis on 14 March 1887. In his official capacity from the Papal court, he visited Ireland in 1887 to report on the disturbed political conditions there; before his final report was presented, the Irish Plan of Campaign was condemned. Secretary of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches on 20 March 1889. Secretary of the Congregation for Propagation of the Faith on 13 June 1891. Part of the First Vatican Council. Cardinal–Priest of San Pietro in Vincoli on 16 January 1893. Prefect of the Congregation for Indulgences and Relics on 30 May 1893.