Ordained on 20 February 1937 in the diocese of Cleveland, Ohio. Served as an army chaplain in the South Pacific during World War II. Bishop of Charleston, South Carolina on 9 September 1958. Archbishop of Atlanta, Georgia on 19 February 1962 where he served for six years. A champion of social justice and civil rights; his first act as Archbishop was to order the desegregation of all Catholic schools and institutions in his diocese. Attended Vatican II, and spoke in support of Mass in the vernacular.