Seaport city, founded by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. It was the world’s intellectual and commercial center under the Ptolemies. Left to Cleopatra by Julius Caesar, 46 B.C., Augustus included it in a Roman province. Passing to the Byzantines and abandoned to the Arabs, its ruin was furthered by the Turks in 1517. It is now restored to commercial importance, and has a varied population of mixed creeds.
Christianity was introduced by Saint Mark, and it became illustrious as a seat of learned doctors, Pantrenus, Clement, Origen, and as the see of Athanasius and Cyril. Under Dioscurus (444-454), successor to Saint Cyril, the Eutychian or Monophysite heresy arose. It spread rapidly and eventually effected a severance from Rome and the Church of Alexandria’s ruin. Its tenet of one nature in Christ was a reaction against Nestorianism teaching two distinct natures in Christ. Eutychianism minimized the completeness of the Humanity and exaggerated the effects upon it of its union with the Divinity, thus denying the reality of the human nature. It finally divided into two communions: the native Copts, bound to error; and the foreign Greeks, faithful to schismatic orthodoxy.
- “Alexandria, Egypt”. . CatholicSaints.Info. 15 August 2010. Web. 2 July 2015. <http://catholicsaints.info/alexandria-egypt/>